THE LAST SUPPER

THE LAST SUPPER “The Last Supper” was the result of the creative minds of International artists gathered in Port Au Prince Haiti, for the 3rd International camp and art exhibition in 2014

Source: THE LAST SUPPER

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AFRICA and HELLENISM- A cultural exchange

 

Hellenism  and Africa

Oil on canvas 36″ X 48″

 

Hellenism and Africa – The Cultural Exchange

 

The emergence from Africa between 125,000  to 60,000 years ago of homo sapiens slowly and gradually over eons replacing other populations such as Neanderthals began the unending influence of African migrations on all subsequent emerging populations and cultures both in the west and in the east. Indications are that human life, as genetic studies and fossil evidence indicate, evolved from archaic  to anatomically modern humans in Africa between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago

The date of the earliest successful “out of Africa” migrations (earliest migrants with living descendants) has generally been placed at 60,000 years ago based on mitochondrial genetics.

These first migrations established  the single origin of modern humans in East Africa. This was the  predominant position held within the scientific community. Charles Darwin believed in a common descent of living organisms, and was among the first to suggest that all humans had common ancestors who originated in and emerged from Africa.

A major competing hypothesis is the multi regional origin of modern humans, which envisions a wave of Homo Sapiens – large numbers of the first humans migrating from Africa earlier and interbreeding with already existing Homo Erectus populations in other regions of the globe. Most multiregionalists still view Africa as a major wellspring of human genetic diversity, but allow a much greater role for hybridization.

Whichever theory one opts for Africa still remains the continent from which the human species sprang and which historically was and is the source for all subsequent historical influences.

By the time Greek civilization evolved, tales of Ethiopia as a mythical land at the further edges of earth were recorded in early Greek literature.  In the epic poems of Homer dating back to the eighth century B.C., Greek gods and heroes, like Menelaus, were believed to have visited this place on the fringes of the known world.

However, long before Homer, the seafaring civilization of Bronze Age Crete, known today as Minoan, established trade connections with Egypt. The Minoans may have first come into contact with Africans at Thebes, during the period of tribute to the Pharaoh. Paintings in the tomb of Rekhmire, dating  to the fourteenth century B.C., depict African and Aegean peoples, most likely Nubians and Minoans. However, with the collapse of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations and the end of the Late Bronze Age, trade connections out of Egypt and the Near East were severed.

Emerging  Greek civilization entered a period of impoverishment and there was  limited contact with African cultures of the time.

During the eight and seventh centuries B.C., the Greeks renewed contacts with the northern periphery of Africa. They established settlements and trade posts along the Nile River and at Cyrene on the northern coast of Africa.  Greece was certainly in contact with Africans at Naukratis one of the earliest and most important trading posts established in Africa. It is likely that images of Africans themselves, began to reappear in the Aegean, in the seventh and early sixth centuries B.C., Greek mercenaries from Ionia and Caria served under the Egyptian pharaohs Psametikus I and II.

The intercultural activities of ancient Greece with black Africa is a primary example of how influential Africa was in the art and society of ancient Greece

At the time all Africans were known as Ethiopians to the ancient Greeks. Skin color was the primary identifying physical characteristic. It is recorded that Ethiopians were among King Xerxes’ troops when Persia invaded Greece in 480 B.C. At this time the Greeks would have come into contact with large numbers of Africans. Ethiopians were considered exotic Their futures contrasted markedly with the Greeks’ own well established perception of themselves.

In Greek pottery the black glaze central to Athenian vase paintings was ideally suited  for representing black skin. The black skin tones were a consistent feature used to describe Ethiopians in ancient Greek literature as well; preserved comic masks, as well as a recurring feature in the vase paintings from this period, indicate that Ethiopians were often cast as subjects in their vase painting as well as in Greek comedies. Ethiopians were regularly featured in Greek vase painting well into the fourth century BCE.

Ethiopians were also featured in the tragic plays of Aeschylus, Sophokles, and Euripides;  a tomb painting from a Greek cemetery near Paestum in southern Italy shows an Ethiopian and a Greek in a boxing competition.

An increased knowledge of Nubia came after  the establishment of the Ptolemaic dynasty and Macedonian rule in Egypt. This greater familiarity and knowledge occurred in southern Sudan, after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. Sudan was the neighboring kingdom along the  lower Nile ruled by kings who resided in the capital cities of Napata and later Meroe. Cosmopolitan metropolises, including Alexandria in the Nile Delta, became centers where significant Greek and African populations lived  together.

During the Hellenistic period (ca 323-31 B.C.) the repertoire of African imagery in Geek art  greatly increased. Depictions of Ethiopians as athletes and entertainers are indicative of activities in which they participated. Scholars maintain that large-scale portraits of Ethiopians made by Greek artists appear for the first time in the Hellenistic period and high-quality works, such as images on gold jewelry and fine bronze statuettes, are tangible evidence of the interaction of Africans into various levels of Greek society.

 

Alexander III of Macedon, 356 BC commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a King of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty, an ancient Greek royal house. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northern Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt into northwest India and modern-day Pakistan. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history’s most successful military commanders. Alexander the Great will be remembered in “the west” as the emperor  who spread Hellenism.

 

, New York: Web: www.leonkalas.com / e-mail: greco.kalas89@gmail.com Tel: 1-718-797-3943: Leon Nicholas Kalas

Africa vs. Hellenism II

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NEW YORK, IMAGES OF A METROPOLIS

NEW YORK, IMAGES OF A METROPOLIS

NEW YORK, IMAGES OF A METROPOLIS: To view this book online and get a copy if you wish, please go to: http://www.blurb.com/bookstore/detail/2517005

Thank you: STUDIO 149 Brooklyn, New York, USA

http://www.leonkalas.com

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Modern Paintings HEADS Series…

Modern Paintings HEADS Series…

Modern Paintings HEADS Series: To view the book online and get a copy if you wish, please go to: http://www.blurb.com/bookstore/detail/2153386

Thank you: STUDIO 149 Brooklyn, New York, USA

http://www.leonkalas.com

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An ANTHOLOGY OF POEMS with Expressionistic paintings

An ANTHOLOGY OF POEMS with Expressionistic paintings

AN ANTHOLOGY OF POEMS with expressionistic paintings: To view the book online and get a copy if you wish, please go to: http://www.blurb.com/bookstore/detail/3877631

Thank you: STUDIO 149 Brooklyn, New York, USA

 

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AN ANTHOLOGY OF POEMS with expressionistic paintings

AN ANTHOLOGY OF POEMS with expressionistic paintings

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Self-portrait of the artist

Self-portrait of the artist

Oil on canvas
36″ X 36″

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Brooklyn Museum’s Open Studios…

Brooklyn Museum’s Open Studios

September 8-9, 2012

Please come and visit my studio

http://www.gobrooklynart.org/studio/leonkalas

 

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Brooklyn Museum’s Open Studios

Brooklyn Museum’s Open Studios

Brooklyn Museum’s Open Studios

September 8-9, 2012

Please come and visit my studio

http://www.gobrooklynart.org/studio/leonkalas

 

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Brooklyn Museum’s Open Studios

Brooklyn Museum’s Open Studios: September 8-9, 2012
Please come and visit my studio:
http://www.gobrooklynart.org/studio/leonkalas

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged , , | Leave a comment